American history, history and travel, History in Time, History of American Businesses, How famous buinesses got started, Jell-O, Lost and Found, Myths and Legends, Sites to see in the world, Still Current, Travel, Uncategorized

Where it all started: Jell-O

 

Ron Current

Ron Current

This post isn’t about a well-known business, but rather a well-known dessert. How I came across this story is another reason why I love “everyday history,” because you never know when or where you’ll find it. And finding this little historical gem is a perfect example.
During a quick weekend trip to New York State for the purpose of tracking down where one of my wife’s Revolutionary War ancestors had settled near the City of Batavia we passed through the small town of LeRoy, and there on the town’s welcome sign it read, “LeRoy, the Home of Jell-O.” This was an exciting, and unexpected, surprise that I had to check it out.
Like McDonald’s most everyone has a Jell-O story from their childhood. For me it was my Mother adding Pineapple chucks to Strawberry Jell-O, which is now my Daughters favorite too.
But before we tour LeRoy’s Jell-O Gallery museum let me give a short history of Jell-O and its connection to Leroy.
From the kitchen of Pearle and May Wait

Peale Wait two

Pearle B Wait, photo taken from Find-A-Grave. There are no photos of May Wait that I could find.

In 1897 a Leroy entrepreneurial couple by the names of Pearle and May Wait had been trying, unsuccessfully, to start a cough syrup and laxative business in their kitchen. After years of getting nowhere with this line of products they decided to try something they knew more about, food. What Pearle and May where really good at was making sweet syrups from local fruits and berries.
No one knows what gave them the idea to combine their fruit syrups with gelatin, then turning it into a powder that would become a tasty sweet and fruity dessert when water was added, but they did and it worked. Although gelatins had been around for a very long time no one had combined it with anything to make it taste good before the Waits. The desserts of that time were cakes and pies which took lots of time and ingredients to make. The process that the Waits developed was quick and easy to make, and a little known fact, that their Jell-O didn’t need to be refrigerated, which wasn’t available in the late 19th century. All you needed was the powder, water and let it stand for a while.
It was May who came up with the name for their new product by combining the words gelatin and jelly. She then added the letter “O” at the end, which was a popular marking practice at the time. The first flavors they offered were strawberry, raspberry, lemon, and orange.
Although Pearle and May had invented a revolutionary new tasty dessert they didn’t have enough money to advertise and promote their new treat. Unable to make a living selling Jell-O themselves they sold the formula, patent, and name to a neighbor, Orator Frank Woodward for $450 in 1899.
Woodward, with his Genesee Pure Food Company, had the manufacturing capability, and was already a success with his roasted cereal coffee substitute, Grain-O. He channeled the income from Grain-O into the marketing and sales for Jell-O, but the initial sales of Jell-O were extremely slow. At one point a frustrated Woodard thought of selling the whole business, Grain-O, Jell-O and all, for $35.
But Woodward, being a natural born marketer, wouldn’t give up. He developed a two part strategy: first he’d send his sales force out, wearing fancy suits; to distribute free samples and the Jell-O cookbook he had created. He then had these salesmen go around to the local grocers telling them that they better stock their shelves with this new product because, “they’ll be a run on the store for it.” Although it worked in the local region it didn’t have the far reaching success that Woodward had hoped.
Early in 1900 Orator became ill and his wife Cora took over running the business, she would finally develop the full potential of Jell-O. In 1904 Cora hired William Humelbaugh to help with the advertising. Humelbaugh suggested that they run an ad for Jell-O in the Ladies Home Journal, one of the most popular magazines of the time, at a cost of $336; the ad featured a smiling housewife in an apron proclaiming that Jell-O was, “America’s Favorite Dessert.” This new adverting campaign took off causing sales for Jell-O that year to jump to $250,000. Jell-O sales continued to grow, and well known artists were hired to create artwork promoting Jell-O, one being Norman Rockwell.
In 1925 the Postum Cereal Company (today’s General Foods) bought Genesee Pure Foods and Jell-O. At that time the Jell-O factory was the largest employer in LeRoy. In 1964 the corporation moved its Jell-O manufacturing operation out of LeRoy, ending almost a century in the city. The original Woodward factory has since been torn down.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

May’s grave. From Find-A-Grave

 

 

The story of Jell-O, like McDonald’s, is one of both success and misfortune. For Pearle and May Wait they sold their invention for $450, which would be around $12,000 today, while Orator and Cora Woodward’s company raked in $250,000, around $6.2 million today, in sales for Jell-O just five years later. This difference between these two stories can clearly be seen at LeRoy’s Machpelah Cemetery where both families are laid to rest.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

Pearle’s grave. from Find-A-Grave

The Woodward’s are entombed in a Greek style crypt, while Pearle and May lie side by side with only simple headstones.

OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

The Woodward’s Tomb. Photo from Find-A-Grave

 

 

 

 
The Jell-O Gallery

DSC_0086

The Jell-O Gallery. Photo by author

LeRoy is about thirty miles from Rochester, New York on Route 5 (East Main Street in the town). The museum is called the “Jell-O Gallery” and is located about a half mile east of Oatka Creek behind the equally historic LeRoy House (more on this later).To find the LeRoy House you need to just look for the burgundy and gold yard sign for the LeRoy House on the north side of the road. You can park on the street or drive around and use the parking lot in back. The Jell-O Gallery is on the second floor of what was once the Union Free School (more on that later also) building.

DSC_0070

The Jell-O Brick Road. Photo by author

Another thing I enjoy about doing the research for my posts is finding out information that I didn’t know, or of things that I missed while visiting these sites. This allows me to let you know what the background story is and what to look for when you visit. I almost missed when visiting the museum the “Jell-O Brick Road,” with the names of the former factory employees  inscribed on the bricks.
Besides the history of Jell-O the museum is filled with thousands of Jell-O related items, molds, advertising posters, signs, toys, recipe books, and other items. You can also vote for which Jell-O flavor is your favorite.
The museum is operated by the LeRoy Historical Society and is open April through December seven days: Monday – Saturday 10am till 4 pm and Sunday 1 pm till 4 pm. From January through March it’s only open weekdays from 10 am till 4 pm. It’s closed on major holidays.
Admission is really inexpensive: Adults $5, children 6 to 11 years old $1.50, 5 years and under are free. Also included with the admission is the transportation history exhibit downstairs.
The Leroy House and Union Free School

DSC_0071

The LeRoy House. Photo by author

When you visit the Jell-O Gallery give yourself time to check out the LeRoy House.
This Greek revival style house was originally built as a land office in the early part of the 19th century. These land offices were part of the independent General Land Office agency of the United States government. This agency was formed in 1812, for the surveying and distribution of public lands.
The LeRoy House was built by Jacob LeRoy, one of the early land agents and settlers to the area. LeRoy expanded the house over time, making it one of the largest and well-furnished homes in the region. In fact LeRoy hosted in this house the wedding reception for Daniel Webster’s second marriage to one of his sisters.
Today the LeRoy House is a museum displaying its history as a land office and of life in the early 19th century. When you walk through you’ll go back in time to what life was like in the finer homes on the early frontier. Upstairs is a room that is dedicated to the American Boy Scouts, featuring uniforms and other items.
The Union Free School

DSC_0075

The Union Free School building, now home to the Jell-O Gallery and transportation  museum. Photo by author

Besides housing the Jell-O Gallery and transportation museums this three-story limestone building was first home to the LeRoy Academic Institute, one of the first educational schools in the area, and later the local high school. It the 20th century if ceased being used for education and was converted for the manufacturing of patent medicines. It was bought, along with the LeRoy House, by the historical society in the 1940s.

 

 

 

Advertisements
Standard
American history, history and travel, History in Time, History of American Businesses, How famous buinesses got started, Lost and Found, McDonald's Restaurants, Myths and Legends, Sites to see in the world, Still Current, Things to see in California, Travel, Uncategorized

Where it all started: McDonald’s

Ron Current

Ron Current

I see history as being more than just ancient sites, people and politics. For me there is a history in everyday life. Even our contemporary businesses, that we see or visit every day, have a history. How did they get started, where did they start, and most importantly, who started them. Some of these stories we know, and some we think we know.
My next series of posts will be on some of those businesses that have become cultural icons, not just in the United States but worldwide. I hope that these posts will shed some light on the origins of these well known businesses. So sit back and enjoy “where it all started.”

 

 

McDonald’s Restaurant Museum, San Bernardino, California

The McDonald's museum

The “unofficial” McDonald’s Museum today, on the site of the original McDonald’s brothers restaurant. Photo by the author   

I can remember clearly when the first McDonald’s restaurants opened near where I lived in Mount Clemens, Michigan. To be honest I wasn’t too excited about this interloper, because we had our own “Golden Point” hamburger drive-in. But eventually Mickey Dee’s won out, and the “Point” vanished into fond memories.
Over the years McDonald’s finally became my hamburger place of choice. I remember that I could get five hamburgers, two orders of fries and two large Cokes for $1.83. But that was back in the late 1960’s and McDonald’s is much different today. Back then you’d walked up to a window that was located in the front of the building, ordered your food, which was waiting lined up in rows behind the server. The famous French fries where cut from whole potatoes, the milkshakes were hand made with real ice cream and blended with a large mixer, and you ate in your car. Also all the servers were young men.
We all have our McDonald’s stories to tell about this great American, and worldwide, tradition. However I had no idea of the history of this place with the golden arches until I read Ray Kroc’s autobiography, Grinding it Out. What I learned was that Ray Kroc really wasn’t the originator of McDonald’s, but rather the marketer and developer of what is todays McDonald’s. In his book Kroc credits two brothers in San Bernardino California for creating the process and providing its name.

DSC_0123

The saved historic sign. Photo by the author

While visiting Palm Springs this year I learned that there was a museum on the site of the original McDonald’s  restaurant in San Bernardino, about an hour from where I was staying, so I decided to drive over and see it. While we’re driving there let me give you a little history of McDonald’s.

 

The McDonald brothers
In the late 1930’s Richard “Dick” and Maurice “Mac” McDonald, two transplanted brothers from Manchester, New Hampshire, had a small restaurant selling Hot Dogs, orange juice, coffee and tea called the “Airdrome” in Monrovia California. Wanting to expand their offering in 1940 they moved their entire restaurant, building and all, to 14th and E Street (old Route 66) in San Bernardino California. There they converted it to a Bar-B-Q Drive-In, complete with young female car hops. There was a good and a bad to this new operation: Good, because it became the #1 teen hangout, and bad, because it became the #1 teen hangout. They had problems with unruly teens that kept families away. So Dick and Mac decided to reinvent their concept again to become more family friendly. Seeing that the hamburgers and French fries where their top sellers they decided to cut the menu to just those items.

Mcdonald_brothers

Richard “Dick” and Maurice “Mac” McDonald, photo from the internet

 
Dick McDonald, with an engineering background, created a flow chart to maximize speed and efficiency in the foods preparation, which they called “Speedee Service.” Dick and Mac remodeled their restaurant building and discontinued using car hops. On December 12, 1948 they cut the ribbon on their new restaurant, that they named after their family, “McDonald’s.” Not only was the food delivered fast it was very inexpensive for a family; The hamburgers cost 15 cents and the fries 10 cents, which was great for 1948.
In 1949 the success of the brother’s McDonald’s attracted the attention of milkshake Multi-Mixer Salesmen Ray Kroc. Kroc convinced the brothers that they should francize their concept, with Kroc getting the francize ownership east of the Mississippi River. Soon there became conflict on what was the vision for McDonald’s between the brothers and Kroc, so in 1961, Kroc bought out the brother’s interest and all of their rights for $2.7 million dollars. This might sound pretty good until you know that Kroc’s net worth when he died in 1984 was just under 400 million.

6.-McDo.Hist13_McDonaldBrotherRestaurant

The original McDonald’s as it was in 1948. Photo from the internet.

There parting was not pleasant, and with this terrible relationship between Kroc and the brothers, Kroc forced them to change their restaurant’s name to “Big M.” Then adding insult to injury Kroc built one of his “McDonald’s just down the street. Dick and Mac couldn’t compete with this new McDonald’s and closed their restaurant in 1962.

 

If you get a chance and see the movie “the Founder” you’ll get a idea on what happened, which follows the history fairly close.

The original restaurant’s site today
In 1972 the restaurant building was torn down, with only the original McDonald’s street sign being saved by a concerned neighbor. This sign helps you to find the site where McDonald brothers original McDonald’s was and the museum. The current building there now was built in 1980, and in 1998 it was purchase by Albert Okura, a big McDonald’s fan, the owner of the Pollo Rotisserie restaurants.

Inside the McDonald's museum

Inside the  San Bernardino museum. This museum has everything McDonald’s, not only dating from the brothers but current McDonald’s items. Photo by the author

Okura believes in preserving history, and knowing that the site is a valuable piece of American restaurant history, opened this “unofficial” McDonald’s museum on December 12, 1998, the 50th Anniversary of the opening of Dick and Mac’s McDonald’s.
The museum specializes in the early McDonald’s years as well as items that are more contemporary.  On display are some of the items used in the brother’s original restaurant. There is also a host of McDonald’s packaging, advertising and promotional items to see.

Origanial items from the first McDonald's

Items used at the original McDonald’s. Some were used in the Movie “the Founder.” Photo by the author 

The museum does accepts donations of all McDonald’s related items, and they’d really love to have a Ronald McDonald costume.

 

The museum is open 7 days, and admission is FREE.

The McDonald’s corporation does not recognize this site, or its museum, as the “original.” They consider Ray Kroc’s first McDonald’s in Des Plaines, Illinois as location #1. It has a museum also, which I plan on visiting in the future.

Next: “It wiggles and it jiggles,” the story of Jell-O

 

Standard
Ancient Roman, history and travel, History in Time, History of the Roman Forum, In the footsteps of the Ceasers, Italy, Julius Caesar, Lost and Found, Myths and Legends, Roman History, Rome, Shakespeare, Sites to see in the world, Still Current, The assassanation of Julius Caesar, The Caesars, The Roman Forum, The Roman Republic, Travel, Uncategorized, What to see in Rome, World history

The Roman Forum: Searching for Caesar’s Grave

 

Ron Current

Ron Current

The assassination of Julius Caesar was only the beginnings of this historic story of ancient Roman intrigue, what came next was his funeral and cremation. For this story we’ll return to the Roman Forum, and my surprising find.
As I stated in my last post (The Roman Forum: Searching for the site of Julius Caesar’s assassination) I expected to find where he was murdered in the Forum, and although I didn’t find the site of his assassination there I did find something even more amazing- his grave!
But before I describe what I found I’d like to again go back in time to 44 BC, and the aftermath of Caesar’s assassination.

 
The Funeral of Julius Caesar
There are no firsthand accounts as what took place at Caesar’s funeral and cremation. What we know comes from two sources: the Greek historian Appian of Alexandria (c. 95-c.165), in his Roman history writings History of the Civil Wars, and the Roman scholar Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus (c.71-c.135), in his Lives of the Twelve Caesars, both written decades after Caesar’s funeral. From these two accounts we get a picture as to what may have taken place in 44 BC.

the-rostra-platform

The reconstructed Rostra in the Roman Forum today

A few days after Caesar’s assassination his body, still in the cloths he wore when murdered, was taken on a bier of ivory and placed on the Rostra in the Roman Forum. In the Forum today is the reconstructed rostra that sits on that site near the Temple of Saturn and the Arch of Serverus. The condition of Caesar’s body couldn’t have been very good after days in the heat of Rome, embalming hadn’t been invented in 44 BC. This would have added to the horror of the event. Also on the Rostra, next to the body, was a torso of Caesar made of wax, which revolved mechanically, showing the 23 stab wounds.
The large crowd that had gathered for the funeral was becoming more and more agitated as time went on, and there was great wailing and moaning coming from them. Armed men were placed in front of the Rostra to hold back the crowd as Caesar’s friend and Consul Marc Antony took to the platform to give the funeral oration.
Friends, Romans and countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.
Act III, Scene II of Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare.

 

 

funeral-of-julius-caesar-44-bc-photo-researchers

Marc Antony giving his address at Caesar’s funeral

These opening lines by Marc Antony in Julius Caesar at Caesars funeral are perhaps the most recognized and well known lines in all of Shakespeare’s works, however Appian presents another version of Antony’s opening words, “It is not right, my fellow-citizens, for the funeral oration in praise of so great a man be delivered by me, a single individual, instead of by his whole country…” Although a word-for-word record of what Antony actually said hasn’t been found both Appian and Tranquillius state that what he said denounced the conspirators for their ghastly act and turned the crowd of mourners into an enraged mob.

 

 

After Antony’s speech the mob rushed the Rostra, pushing passed the guards, seizing the bier with Caesar’s body, and carried it down the Via Sacra to the Forum’s square, between the Basilica Julia and the Temple of Caster and Polllux. There they sat it down, covering it with wood, clothes, furniture, anything that would burn, and set it ablaze. It was said that fire was so large and out of control that several of the building in the Forum were damaged.
After the funeral pyre had burned out the crowed, still enraged, went through the city burning the houses of the conspirators. This caused many of the them to flee the city. Both Antony and Octavian used this anger to their own political ends, getting rid of the senate conspirators and to form their own seat of power in Rome.
One year later, in 42 BC they, along with Marcus Lepidus, formed yet another three person ruling partnership called the Second Triumvirate. Also they got the new puppet senate to formally deify Caesar, making him the first Roman to be named a god. In addition Octavian pushed the senate to name him “Divi filius,” or Son of god, giving him more power than Antony and Lepidus.
Finally after years of another civil war and his political gamesmanship Octavian had killed all of Caesar’s murders and Marc Antony, and exiled Lepidus, leaving him in absolute power of Rome. This culminated with the senate titling him with the name “Augustus,” in Latin meaning “the illustrious one.” This title was more of a religious title of authority than a political one that would allow Augustus Caesar to maneuver his way into becoming Rome’s first emperor, and ending the Roman Republic era.
The Temple of Divus Caesar
Caesar’s ashes had been collected and later placed in the base of the Alter the Rome Senate had erected on the site of his cremation. In 31 BC Octavian began the construction of a temple to honor his adopted father also at that site. In 29 BC, two years later, the temple was dedicated to “Divus Julius,” the Deified Caesar.

636px-HuelsenRecTemplumDiviIuli

This is what the Temple of Caesar may have looked like. Note the recess with the Alter at the center front

One of the most unique aspects of the Temple of Caesar was the recess built into its front to accommodate the senate’s Alter holding Caesar’s ashes. Around this recess was constructed a raised orators platform designed to be the new rostra for public speeches. This platform was adorned with the bronze rams taken from the ships of Antony and Cleopatra at the battle of Actium. The temple was flanked by two arches, one for the Battle of Actium and the other to celebrate Augustus’ returning the Legionary Standards after the battle of Carrhae. Inside the temple was a large statue of Julius Caesar, which included a star on his head and bearing the augural staff in its right hand. This statue could be seen from the Forum outside when the temple’s doors were open.
It’s recorded that the Temple of Caesar remained mostly intact until the late 15th century, after which it was stripped of its marble and stone.
The Temple of the Deified Caesar today
To find the Temple of Caesar in the Roman Forum when going through the Arch of Constantine entrance you walk down the still unexcavated hill toward the center of the Forum. As you pass the Temple of Antonius and Faustina on the Via Sacra, and behind the columns of the Temple of Vesta and those of the Temple of Castor and Pollus, you’ll see what looks like a small roof covering something; this is what remains of the Temple of Caesar.

 

 

The Temple of Caesar

The remains of the Temple of Caesar in the Forum today

As you walk around to its front all you’ll see are just parts of the temple’s cement core. These were the base which supported the orators’ platform and temple building, and is all that remains of the temple itself. There are segments of the temple’s decorations around the site and also in the Forum Museum but that all. What really amazed and thrilled me is what I found the roof protecting.
As you walk under the roof and around the cement wall of the old temple you’ll see what looks like a pile of gray dirt. This is what’s left of the Alter that the Roman Senate erected over 2,000 years ago, the Alter holding the ashes of Julius Caesar. It’s then that it hits you, you are looking at the grave and final resting place of the most famous Roman in history, Julius Caesar.

The Altar in the Temple of Caesar, which is said to have held Julius Caesars ashes

The remains of the senate’s Alter with Caesar’s ashes

Still today people of Rome, and visitors, pay homage to this great man by offering coins and flowers on his grave, and for me it was a fabulous, and unexpected discovery.

 

 

 

 

This ends my seven part series on the Roman Forums. I hope you’ll read, or re-read them all:
The Roman Forum: Part I, the center of an empire
The Roman Forum: Part II, a walking exploration
The Imperial Fora of Rome: Julius and Augustus Caesar
The Imperial Fora of Rome: Emperors Vespasian and Nerva
The Imperial Fora of Rome: Forum of Trajan
The Roman Forum: Searching for the site of Julius Caesar’s assassination

 

 

Standard
Ancient Roman, history and travel, History in Time, History of the Roman Forum, In the footsteps of the Ceasers, Italy, Julius Caesar, Lost and Found, Myths and Legends, Roman History, Rome, Shakespeare, Sites to see in the world, Still Current, The assassanation of Julius Caesar, The Caesars, The Roman Forum, The Roman Republic, Travel, Uncategorized, What to see in Rome, World history

The Roman Forum: Searching for the site of Julius Caesar’s assassination.

 

Ron Current

Ron Current

Perhaps there isn’t a more famous and well known ancient Roman than Julius Caesar. This is due in part to William Shakespeare’s play Julius Caesar and the many movies and television programs done on him. However, many of us only know  this man from just these plays and movies, which aren’t necessarily historically factual.
On my list of sites to see while at the Roman Forum was where Julius Caesar was murdered. From what little I knew, again from the fore mentioned sources, he was murdered on the steps of the Roman Senate by his enemies on March 15th 44 BC, the Ides of March. I figured since the Roman Senate met in the Roman Forum that’s where I’d find where it happened, but I was wrong. Caesar, I found, wasn’t assassinated in the Forum but at another location. Although he wasn’t murdered in the Forum I did find something there on Caesar that was totally unexpected and much more amazing, but that’s for another post.
Hail Caesar!
Before I take you on my journey of discovery I feel I should give a little background on the man we’re searching for.
Gaius Julius Caesar was born on July 13 in 100 BC to a well to do Roman political family. Caesar believed that his political ambitions would be realized through a successful military career. Caesar advanced thru the ranks quickly becoming General of the legendary 13th Legion.

Julius Caesar, the Tusculum bust, the only known sculpture during his life

The Tusclum bust of Julius Caesar, the only one known to have been done while he was alive.

His fame grew when he expanded the Roman Empire into Europe and Britain. This gave Caesar immense military and popular power that he used to his advantage.
In 60 BC Caesar formed a political alliance with two of his rivals, Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey “the Great,” against the wishes of the Roman Senate. This alliance ended in 53 BC with the death of Crassus. Pompey feeling threated by Caesar’s popularity, switched this alliance to the Senate.
The Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his command, which he refused to do. Instead on January 10 in 49 BC Caesar broke Roman law by leading his army across the Rubicon River, the northern border of ancient Roman Italy, starting a civil war.
The Great Roman Civil War lasted four years, ending with Pompey’s murder and those that opposed Caesar being overthrown in 46 BC. Caesar now had full say over the Senate, who named him dictator for life; however there were still those in the Senate that opposed Caesar.
With his complete control of the government he began instituting programs of social and governmental reform. He also began major building projects in the Forum.
As I had presented in my previous posts (the Roman Forum, Part II- A walking exploration and the Imperial Fora of Rome: Julius and Augustus Caesar) Julius Caesar began major reconstruction projects including building his Curia Julia. On March 15, 44 BC Caesar’s Curia wasn’t finished and the old Curia had been torn down forcing the Senate to meet in another location. That’s what threw me off as to where the assassination took place.

“Beware the Ides of March”
While the new Curia was being finished the Senate had moved their meetings to the Curia Pompey, part of the magnificent Theater of Pompey located in the Campus Martius, the new section of Rome north of the Forum.

 

1412px-Vincenzo_Camuccini_-_La_morte_di_Cesare

The assassination of Julius Caesar by Vincenzo Camuccini

At first Caesar refused to meet with the Senate, after being warned by his wife and a soothsayer that told him, “Beware the Ides of March.” But after the conspirators convinced him of the importance of the meeting Caesar changed his mind. Legend has it that as Caesar was on his way to the meeting he again met the seer and joked, “The Ides of March has come,” to which the seer replied solemnly, “Aye, Caesar, but not gone.”
It was a little more than a mile from his house on Forum to Campus Martius where he would meet with the Senate in the Curia of Pompey. I would imagine that even after having seen Pompey’s Theater many times it still amazed him.

The Theater of Pompey
Pompey had been inspired by the Greek theater at Mytilene and chose to build one even more magnificent and larger in Rome. Pompey used his own money for its construction, but had to build it outside of the old city because of a law prohibiting the construction of permanent theaters within the city.

The Theater of Pompey

The Theater of Pompey, the Curia of Pompey is at the center above the garden area.

Construction of his theater began in around 61 BC, taking seven years to complete. It was dedicated in 52 BC. When finished the theater’s back curved wall stood 115 feet above the street and stretched 500 feet across. At the center of its back wall was the temple to Venus Victrix which rose high above the theater’s roof.  The stage is thought to have been 95 feet wide. Writings at the time said the theater held 17,500 patrons.
Behind the stage was a long landscaped garden with flowers and fountains in which patrons could walk during intermissions. This garden was surrounded by a columned portico that held statues and paintings by popular Roman artists.

At the opposite end of the garden stood the Curia of Pompey, with its almost temple like design. Pompey had built his theater behind four earlier temples; the entrance to the Curia was opposite the circular columned temple to Aedes Lutatius Catulus, “Luck of the Current Day.”

The Curia of Pompey

 

1280px-Curia_Pompey[1] cropped

The Curia of Pompey as it would have looked from the garden of the Theater of Pompey in 44 BC. By A derivative work of a 3D model by Lasha Tskhondia 

The Curia of Pompey held meeting rooms and featured a large statue of Pompey himself at its entrance. It was here that the Roman Senate was meeting on that fateful day. Some stories of Julius Caesar’s murder has it happening on the steps as he walked into the building, while others say he was inside sitting in front of the Senators. What is known is that Caser was attacked by sixty conspirators who stabbed him twenty-three times.
The conspirators believed that Caesar’s death would be welcomed among the people, but they vastly underestimated his popularity.

 

Following the assassination Caesar’s adopted son Gaius Octavius quickly took power and killed all the conspirators. Octavius would change his name to Augustus and become what many consider the first Roman Emperor.
It is also believed that Augustus marked the site of his father’s murder with a concert memorial, 10 feet wide by 6 feet high. As for the Curia itself it is said that after the murder it was closed and walled up. After a fire destroyed the structure a latrine was put in its place.

What’s left of the Theater of Pompey and its Curia today?
Except for the Curia the rest of the Theater and its complex remained in use long after Julius Caesar’s murder. The emperors that followed continued to maintain and to restore the complex throughout the decades that followed. Records show that the theater was still in use after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, and did so until around 554 AD when the population of Rome declined to the point that it wasn’t used anymore. As with the other buildings of ancient Rome the Theater of Pompey’s structural materials were striped and used for other building.

699px-MapTheatreofPompey two

The Theater of Pompey overlaying the streets today. Notice the round diagram center right (the Temple of Aedes Lutatius Catulus), just to the left of it was the Curia of Pompey.

Today there isn’t much visible of this amazing structure, and its historic Curia, to be seen. Some of its walls have been enveloped into newer buildings; its foundations now support many of the buildings in the Campo de’ Fiori and Largo di Torre Argentina sections of the city, or used as wine cellars for hotels and restaurants in that part of the city.
You can however still see the curved outline of the theater in the street as you walk east from the Campo de’ Fiori through the Palazzo Orsini Pio Righetti, and the Via di Grotta Pinta roughly follows the line of its stage. But for the most part this grand structure, Theater of Pompey and the site of were Caesar met his fate, has been buried and lost, their remains covered over and lying under the city square of Largo di Torre Argentina.
In 1927 during demolition work in the square a large marble head and arms were uncovered; this began an archaeological dig which unearthed four Republican era temples. These temples were the ones located at the back of the theaters garden and opposite its Curia.
Using the locations of these temples in 2012 a group of Spanish archaeologists believe they have discovered the location of Augustus’ concert memorial over the site of Caesars murders. However there is still much debate on this finding. What we do know is that the Curia of Pompey stills rests beneath the street, bus and streetcar stop on the Largo di Torre Argentina.

Largo di Torre Argentina, Rome Italy where Ceaser was murdered

Largo di Torre Argentina as seen today. The Curia of Pompey is thought to be under the street behind the tree next to the circle temple.

When you go to Rome make sure you visit Largo di Torre Argentina, and look past the ruins of the circular temple to the area that goes under the street, and you’ll be looking at were Julius Caesar fell at the hands of his enemies.

So now that we’ve found were Caesar was murdered what happened to his body? For that we’ll go back to the Roman Forum and I’ll show you what I found there in my next post.

 

 

Standard
Ancient Roman, history and travel, History in Time, History of the Roman Forum, In the footsteps of the Ceasers, Italy, Lost and Found, Myths and Legends, Roman History, Rome, Saint Peter, Sites to see in the world, Still Current, The Caesars, The Colosseum, The Pantheon, The Roman Forum, The Roman Republic, Travel, Uncategorized, What to see in Rome, World history

The Imperial Fora of Rome: The Forum of Trajan

 

The Imperal Forums.docx

The Roman Imperial Forums at the height of the Empire. Art from Wikipedia.

 

 

Ron Current

Ron Current

As I walked along the Via dei Fori Imperiali past what remains of the Forums of Augustus and Nerva toward the Piazza Venezia I see more ruins: a space littered with broken and fallen columns, a curved high wall, and a tall Imperial column. This is all that’s left of the last and most immense complex of all the Imperial Forums to be built by any of the ancient Roman emperors, the Forum of Trajan.
The history of this forum begins not with the Emperor Trajan but with one of his predecessors, Domitian. At that time in Rome a new city center was growing north of the Forum at the Campus Marius. Domitian saw that his forum could be the connector to this new center and the old. The most logical site to build his forum to complete his purpose was the vacant land between the Capitoline and Quirinal Hills. The problem was that there was a small saddle hill between these two hills that needed to be leveled. To accomplish this project it would require moving more earth than what Julius Caesar had to move when building his forum.
So extensive was this leveling that it hadn’t been finished at the time Domitian was murdered in 96 AD. This undertaking was so difficult that Domitian’s successor Nerva abandoned the site, selecting the already level street between the forums of Augustus and Vespasian for his forum (see my post on the Forum of Neva). It would be the more ambitious Emperor Trajan who would finish the leveling and to build his forum on this site.

The Imperial Forum of Trajan

The ruins of what remains of Trajan’s Forum today. Photo from Wikipedia

Trajan began construction on his forum in around 112 AD, using the spoils he had acquired from his conquest of Dacia (todays Romania). Trajan commissioned his favored architect, Apollodorus of Damascus, to do the design and building. Apollodorus had also built two triumphal arches for Trajan and is credited as being the finishing architect on the Pantheon, the one we see today.

 

Trajan's Market

The supporting wall today known as Trajan’s Market. Photo from Wikipedia.

When removing the saddle hill Apollodorus found that the eastern side of the forum ran right up to the high rock face created when they cut into the Quirinal Hill. This unstable face was three stores high and needed to be reinforced. Apollodours solved this issue by including the cliff side into his design. He built an enormous hemicycle brick-faced complex up against the cliff side that completely covered and supported the hills from collapsing. This structure held offices, halls and other commercial usages. There were two wide hallways that ran between the complex against the cliff and the main forum buildings. Today this wall complex is referred to as Trajan’s Markets, however archaeological evidence does not support that this was ever used as a traditional marketplace.
As with all Roman forum designs the main area of Trajan’s Forum consisted of an enormous open interior square that at its center stood a large equestrian statue of the Emperor. This square was surrounded by columned porticoes, with the western and eastern sides being curved. The porticos on the long side featured statues and reliefs of Trajan’s conquests as well as portraits of previous emperors and Trajan’s family.
On the north side of the square stood the Basilica Ulpia. Ancient Roman basilicas were not used for religious purposes, as later Christian basilicas. Roman basilicas were places that housed the offices for the administration of justice, commerce, and also where the Emperors conducted their business.

The ruins of the Forum of

What remains of the columns of the Basilica Ulpia. The base of Trajan’s Column is in the right foreground. Photo by the author.

 

 

Trajan’s basilica was the largest ever built in ancient Roman, measuring 385 feet by 182 feet. Its columns and walls where made of marble and measured 164 feet high, and its roof was made of gilded bronze tiles. As you entered the basilica from the forum’s great square you’d come into its center great nave surround by four columned aisles. On each of the basilica’s sides were libraries, one in Greek and the other in Latin. Those entering or leaving the forum by its main entrance on the north side would have been greeted by the magnificent Column of Trajan.

Trajan's Column

Trajan’s Column today. Photo by the author

Trajan’s Column is the best preserved of the ancient Roman victory columns. It was inaugurated at the same time as Trajan’s Forum in 113 AD. Including its base the column stands 115 feet high. The column is constructed by a series of twenty Carrara marble drums 12.1 feet in diameter and weighing 32 tons. The columns famous frieze, depicting the Roman’s battle with the Dacian’s, wraps up and around the total height of the column, it would measure 620 feet long if stretched out. The columns capital block weights 53.3 tons and had to be lifted the 112 feet to its top, no simple feat for the ancient Roman builders. When it was inaugurated the column was crowned with a statue of Trajan, but this statue vanished sometime in the middle ages. Today a statue of St. Peter sits atop the column, placed there by Pope Sixtus V in 1587.
Here are a couple of facts you may not know about Trajan’s Column: the column is hallow and features a 182 step spiral staircase going up to a viewing platform at the top. Ancient Romans could get a tremendous view of the city and its forums from there. Access to the stairs was through a door in its base. The climb was illuminated by forty window slits along its height that provided sunlight for those climbing up. Also Trajan’s Column was the first ever recorded usage of a spiral staircase. This was a fact that I didn’t know when I visited. I have a passion for these staircases, so without knowing I was looking at the very first spiral staircase in the world.

 

 

The base of Trajan's column

The base of Trajan’s Column which it is said to have held the emperors ashes. The door leading to the spiral stairs are on the opposite side. Photo by the author.

Also after Trajan died, and was deified by the Roman Senate, his ashes were place in a gold urn and entombed in the columns base.
The magnificence of Trajan’s Forum lasted long after the empire had divided. In 352 Ad, on his first visit to Rome, Eastern Roman Emperor Constantius II remarked of the beauty of equestrian statue of Trajan in the center of the forum. he said that he would like one like that made of him. With him on this visit was the Persian prince Hormisdas, who quipped, “But first, my lord, you have to build a stable to match this, if you can.”
Again, Mussolini’s Via dei Fori Imperiali has paved over most of Trajan’s, and Apollodorus of Damascmus, magnificent accomplishments.

 

 

The Forum of Trajan with todays streets

Where Trajan’s Forum stood with todays streets. Art from Wikipedia

 

I’ve included a drawing from Wikipedia showing the streets of Rome with what was Trajan’s Forum overlaid on it. Today you can still see Trajan’s Column, Basilica columns and the wall of Trajan’s Market, but not the sight that Constantius and Hormisdas witnessed.

 

DSCN0058

The author standing on the closed Via dei For a Imperiali near the Colosseum.

Besides having covered much of the Imperial Fora with the busy four-lane Via dei Fori Imperiali the heavy trucks, their vibrations, and exhaust fumes continue to threaten what is left of the glory of Rome. However there are groups of citizens, archeologist and scientists who are trying to convince Rome’s city government to undo what Mussolini did and remove the road. And although nothing major has happened to correct these problems Mayor Ignazio Marino of Roma did close the southern section of this road by the Colosseum to motor vehicles in 2013.

 
This ends by posts of the Imperial Forums, but not the Roman Forum itself. My next post will be, Where was Julius Caesar murdered?

 

 

 

 

Standard
Ancient Roman, Early Christians, history and travel, History in Time, History of the Roman Forum, In the footsteps of the Ceasers, Italy, Lost and Found, Myths and Legends, Roman History, Rome, Sites to see in the world, Still Current, The Caesars, The Colosseum, The Roman Forum, The Roman Republic, Travel, Uncategorized, What to see in Rome, World history

The Imperial Fora of Rome: Emperors Vespasian and Nerva

 

Ron Current

Ron Current

In my previous post I stated that when Mussolini built the wide Via dei Fori Imperial he paved over almost 84% of the five Imperial Forums. The two that were most affected by this were those of the Emperors Vespasian and Nerva. When looking for where those two forums stood you need to go to the corners where the Via Cavour and the Largo Corrado Ricci joins into the Via dei Fori Imperial. It is there, on each of the Via dei Fori Imperial, that you’ll find what remains of these two Imperial Forums.
We will begin our search for these two Imperial Fora with…

 

The Forum of Vespasian, or the Temple of Peace

Temple of Peace

The façade of the church of Santi Cosma e Damiano.   with the holes from which the Forma Urbis Romae hung.

Vespasian had already begun construction on his other grand building projects, such the Flavian Amphitheater, todays Colosseum, when he decided in 75 AD to build a grand showcase to show off all his booty taken from the Jewish Temple of Herod in Jerusalem. It is believed that one of those items was the temple’s magnificent Menorah.
Unlike Caesar and Augustus, Vespasian didn’t start off to build a traditional forum; he never designed it to have a civic function as a true forum would. For him it would only be a place for him to exhibit the spoils from his Jewish War. Because he had no desire to construct a forum he called it, the Temple of Peace. It wasn’t until much later when the Imperial Fora’s were being classified that it become known as the Forum of Vespasian.
The site chosen by Vespasian was just to the south of the forums of Caesar and Augustus next to the main entranceway that connected the Roman Forum with the Subura district. His Temple of Peace was designed completely different than any of the others with a large apsidal hall at the bottom of the portico, with a row of columns separating the portico from the temple building itself. Also its plaza was not paved, rather filled with gardens, pools and statues.
The temple building faced Rome’s Velian Hill and the Colosseum. Another lost feature of the Temple of Peace was the Forma Urbis Romae, a map of ancient Rome on a giant marble slab hung from one of its walls. This wall is now the façade of the church of Santi Cosma e Damiano. You can still see the mounting holes from which that map hung.
The Forum of Nerva, the Transitorium

The Temple of Minerva in the Forum of Nerva

What remains of the Temple of Minerva from the Forum of Nerva

Taking the area of the main entryway to the Rome Forum from the Subura, the street between the Vespasian, Augustus and Caesar forums, Emperor Domitian used this location to build his forum. Domitian began construction at around 85 AD; but like Caesar’s it would be left to his successor to be finished, the Emperor Nerva in 97 AD.
However unlike Caesar’s Forum, which retained his name, Domitian’s forum was officially named the Forum of Nerva after the emperor who completed it.
The long and narrow passageway that the forum occupied was the ancient Roman street, the Via Argiletum. Along it housed the shops of booksellers and cobblers. The Forum of Nerva would become the new monumental entrance to the Roman Forum. Also with its location between the other forums Romans citizens now had easy access to all of them though the Forum of Nerva, and because this unifying design it was popularly called the Transitorium.
The Forum of Nerva was almost 430 feet long by 148 feet wide, making it the smallest Imperial Forum. It featured protruding columns along its walls instead of an arcade. On the eastern end of the forum, behind its monumental entrance, was the Temple of Minerva. This temple remained intact until 1606 AD, when Pope Paul V demolished it for building materials for the Acqua Paola fountain and the Borghese chapel.
Today there’s not much left of these great temples and gathering places to be seen. They’ve become lost and almost invisible from all the commercial buildings and traffic that engulfs them. But if you take the time to seek them out you’ll be rewarded.

 

Standard
American history, history and travel, History in Time, Lost and Found, Myths and Legends, Still Current, Texas history, The Alamo, Travel, Uncategorized

The History of the Alamo: Mission to Fort

 

Ron Current

Ron Current

By the end of 15th century Span had claimed for itself all of South and Central America and as far north in North American as California, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado and Kansas. But claiming these lands and controlling them were two totally a different matters.

 

The professional Spanish Conquistadors sole mission was to look for gold and silver, not to create settlements for Spain. This was very true with their North America claims.  In fact Colorado, Utah, Wyoming and Kansas went completely unsettled by the Spanish. The Spanish also had problems in populating the extreme northern parts of Florida and Mexico.

Although British colonists from Georgia and the Carolina colonies had begun settling in northern Florida and its panhandle it was losing their state of Texas that worried Spain the most.

In 1689, near Matagorda Bay in Texas, they found the remains of French explorer La Salle’s Fort Saint Louis. Fearing French encroachment Spain needed some way to secure the northern lands of Mexico, and the best way was to establish settlements of their own. They chose a method that had been successful in other regions of Mexico and California, Catholic Church Missions.

The Mission system was created by the Franciscan order of the Catholic Church to spread Christianity among the native peoples. But it also provided permeant settlements that could attract other Spanish colonist to move near these missions.

 

The mission San Antonio de Valero.docx

The Mission San Antonio de Valero in 1786

Of all the missions constructed in east Texas during this period the largest concentration in North America were the five built along the San Antonio River. The first of these missions was San Antonio de Valero in 1718, followed by the missions San Jose, San Juan, Concepcion, and Espada. Each of these missions is roughly five miles apart, the distance a monk could walk in a day.

Today four of these five mission churches are still being used as active Catholic parishes. Only the first, San Antonio de Valero is not, but is by far the most famous.

In 1718, the San Antonio de Valero mission was founded near todays San Pedro Springs Park in San Antonio. San Pedro Springs would be only the first of three sites for this mission. In 1724 it moved to its present location on the east side of the San Antonio River at an oxbow bend in that river.

In 1727 a two story stone convento, or priest’s residence, was completed, and in 1744 construction began on the mission’s first stone church. A small temporary adobe building was used for mass during its construction. This first church, with its bell tower and sacristy, collapsed in the 1750’s due to poor workmanship.

Construction on the second, more ambitious, church began in 1758. Its limestone walls were four feet thick to support a barrel-vaulted roof, dome and choir loft. Its design included twin bell towers and an elaborate carved façade. During this construction the Indian population declined causing work to stop. This building would remain roofless and never finished, except for the carvings on the façade.

During this time the mission’s need for defense drastically changed due to a massacre of the missionaries and mission Indians at Santa Cruz de San Saba in 1758. Although Spanish soldiers had begun a defensive presidio (fort) across the river in San Antonio de Bexar it was never completed. Fearing for their safety the priests and mission Indians took it about themselves to fortify the mission by enclosing the complex with an eight foot high, two foot thick wall and a fortified gate. Added to its defenses were a small number of cannon provided by the Spanish military.

For the next four decades the mission San Antonio de Valero would house and support a small number of monks and declining Indian populations, while across the river the town of Bexar continued to grow.

By the late 1700’s the population of mission Indians had continued to decline throughout Texas, and also the hope that these missions would attract more Spanish settlers to northern Mexico hadn’t happen ether. In 1793 Spain began to secularize, close down, the missions in Texas.

After secularization the San Antonio de Valero mission’s grounds and buildings were given to the twelve remaining Indians still living within its walls, and the mission’s religious duties passed to Bexar’s San Fernando church across the river. Over the next decade those twelve Indians would also move, leaving the mission compound to crumb in disrepair.

As the 19th century dawned Mexican Texas’ borders were again challenged by France. There was a disagreement over were the border actually was. Spain claimed it to be at the Red River, while France claimed it to be the Sabine River, 45 miles further west. The threat to their northern frontier became even more of a concern for Spain when the United States’ purchased Louisiana in 1803. There were already illegal French and American immigrants in Spanish Texas, and now the always expanding United States was at their very doorstep.

To help guard against further illegals from settling in Texas Spain increased their military presence throughout the region. They reinforced the small company of soldiers at San Antonio de Bexar with a Calvary company of one hundred men. These were the Second Flying Company of San Carlos De Alamo De Parras, named after the small town of San Jose y Santiago del Alamo, near Parras in the Mexican state of Coahuila.

Since a proper presidio hadn’t been built in Bexar the soldiers took up residency in the already walled Valero mission. Over time the mission Valero began to be called for the Calvary stationed there, and by 1807 military documents simply referred to the place as, the Alamo.

 

The Alamo

The Alamo Church late 1800’s, after the “hump” and roof was added.

There is a legend that says that the mission’s name came from the rows of Cottonwood (Alamo is Spanish for Cottonwood) trees near it on the Alameda road. However these trees were planted long after the mission was called the Alamo.

Standard